In this guide, I’ll take you through the steps of Installing OpenNebula Front-end on Ubuntu 20.04|18.04 & Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. OpenNebula is an opensource, feature-rich and flexible Virtualization solution that helps you build and manage Virtualized Data Centers and enterprise clouds.
For CentOS 7, use: Installing OpenNebula Front-end on CentOS 7
OpenNebula combines existing virtualization technologies like KVM and VMware with advanced features for multi-tenancy, automatic provision, and elasticity. Its aim is to make management of cloud simple. It can be compared with other Cloud Management platforms like Openstack and Cloudstack.
OpenNebula has two main components:
- OpenNebula Front-end – This is the management engine that executes the OpenNebula services.
- OpenNebula Hypervisor Nodes – These are the hypervisors which provide the resources needed by the VMs.
The minimum recommended specs for the OpenNebula front-end are:
|Resources||Minimum Recommended configuration|
|CPU||1 CPU (2 cores)|
|Disk Size||100 GB|
The OpenNebula Front-end machine needs network connectivity to all the hosts, and possibly access to the storage Datastores (either by direct mount or network). The base installation of OpenNebula takes less than 150MB.
Installing OpenNebula Front-end on Ubuntu 18.04 / Ubuntu 16.04
Here we’ll walk through all steps to get OpenNebula Front-end engine up and running on Ubuntu 18.04 / Ubuntu 16.04 server. I assume you already have a running instance of one of this operating systems, this can be a virtual machine or a physical server.
Step 1: Add OpenNebula and Debian repositories
Run the following commands to add epel and OpenNebula repositories on Ubuntu 18.04 / Ubuntu 16.04.
Import Repository Key:
wget -q -O- https://downloads.opennebula.org/repo/repo.key | sudo apt-key add -
Add the repository to the system:
echo "deb https://downloads.opennebula.org/repo/5.12/Ubuntu/20.04 stable opennebula" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/opennebula.list
For Ubuntu 18.04:
echo "deb https://downloads.opennebula.org/repo/5.12/Ubuntu/18.04 stable opennebula" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/opennebula.list
For Ubuntu 16.04:
echo "deb https://downloads.opennebula.org/repo/5.12/Ubuntu/16.04 stable opennebula" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/opennebula.list
Please check the recent version of OpenNebula as you install. As of this writing, the recent version is 5.12.
Step 2: Install and Configure MySQL database
Since we’re going to configure our OpenNebula to use MySQL instead of SQLite, let’s configure it. First, install MariaDB server:
sudo apt update sudo apt -y install mariadb-server
Initiate security settings of MariaDB database server:
Once MariaDB is installed and running, create a database and user for OpenNebula.
$ mysql -u root -p CREATE DATABASE opennebula; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON opennebula.* TO 'oneadmin' IDENTIFIED BY 'StrongPassword'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
Step 3: Install OpenNebula Front-end packages
These are the packages available on OpenNebula CentOS repository:
- opennebula-common: Provides the user and common files.
- ruby-opennebula: Ruby API.
- libopennebula-java: Java API.
- libopennebula-java-doc: Java API Documentation.
- opennebula-node: Prepares a node as an opennebula-node.
- opennebula-sunstone: Sunstone (the GUI).
- opennebula-tools: Command Line interface.
- opennebula-gate: OneGate server that enables communication between VMs and OpenNebula.
- opennebula-flow: OneFlow manages services and elasticity.
- opennebula: OpenNebula Daemon.
Install all OpenNebula packages by running the commands:
sudo apt update sudo apt install opennebula opennebula-sunstone opennebula-gate opennebula-flow
/etc/one, the following files are marked as configuration files:
Step 4: Ruby Runtime Installation.
Some OpenNebula components need Ruby libraries. OpenNebula provides a script that installs the required gems as well as some development libraries packages needed.
You’ll get a prompt asking you to select OS and confirm.
Distribution "debian" detected. About to install these dependencies: * gcc * rake * libxml2-dev * libxslt1-dev * patch * g++ * libsqlite3-dev * libcurl4-openssl-dev * default-libmysqlclient-dev * ruby-dev * make Press enter to continue...
Press enter to start the installation.
Step 5: Configure OpenNebula DB
Then open the file
oned.conf and edit to add MySQL db settings.
sudo vim /etc/one/oned.conf
Uncomment the line:
#DB = [ BACKEND = "sqlite" ]
DB = [ backend = "mysql", server = "localhost", port = 0, user = "oneadmin", passwd = "StrongPassword", db_name = "opennebula" ]
Replace StrongPassword with the password you specified earlier for the DB. Confirm that the user can log in to DB.
$ mysql -u oneadmin -p
Step 6: Configure oneadmin credentials
A randomly generated file is usually placed on the file /var/lib/one/.one/one_auth.
$ sudo cat /var/lib/one/.one/one_auth oneadmin:b82f13701914afc9e3c6aea69f180109
If you need to change the password, do it here.
$ sudo su - oneadmin $ echo "oneadmin:mypassword" > ~/.one/one_auth
This will set the oneadmin password on the first boot. From that point, you must use the command below to change oneadmin’s password.
$ oneuser passwd
Step 7: Configure Firewall (UFW)
We’re close to the final step. If you have an active UFW firewall, you need to allow specific ports required by OpenNebula.
If running, open the port required to access Sunstone web interface.
sudo ufw allow proto tcp from any to any port 9869
Step 8: Start OpenNebula daemons.
Used systemd service management command to start OpenNebula services.
sudo systemctl start opennebula opennebula-sunstone sudo systemctl enable opennebula opennebula-sunstone
Step 10: Verifying the Installation and Accessing Sunstone UI
After OpenNebula is started for the first time, you should check that the commands can connect to the OpenNebula daemon. You can do this in the Linux CLI or in the graphical user interface: Sunstone. From CLI in the Front-end, run the following command as oneadmin:
# su - oneadmin -c "oneuser show" USER 0 INFORMATION ID : 0 NAME : oneadmin GROUP : oneadmin PASSWORD : 8d516557789b40a3d6e8964f8f926da8970a09ab AUTH_DRIVER : core ENABLED : Yes TOKENS USER TEMPLATE TOKEN_PASSWORD="d1889697b828156a14e1376b374184ed5d65dea2" RESOURCE USAGE & QUOTAS
If you get an error message, then the OpenNebula daemon could not be started properly.
The OpenNebula logs are located in /var/log/one, namely:
- oned.log – Core logs. Error messages will be located here. prefixed with [E]
- sched.log – Scheduler logs are located here.
Accessing Sunstone UI
Now you can try to log in to Sunstone web interface. To do this point your browser to:
If everything is OK you will be greeted with a login page.
The user is oneadmin and the password is the one in the file /var/lib/one/.one/one_auth in your Front-end. On logging in, you should get a dashboard like below.
OpenNebula Front-end Directory structure
The following table lists some notable paths that are available in your Front-end after the installation:
|Log files, notably: |
|Storage for the datastores|
|Action files for VMs (deployment file, transfer manager scripts, etc…)|
|Probes and scripts that will be synced to the Hosts|
|Virtual Machine Manager Driver scripts|
|Authentication Driver scripts|
|Information Manager (monitoring) Driver scripts|
|MarketPlace Driver scripts|
|Datastore Driver scripts|
|Networking Driver scripts|
|Transfer Manager Driver scripts|
We have installed OpenNebula Front-end on Ubuntu 18.04 & Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. Next read