Welcome to our guide on how to install and configure Samba Share on a Debian 10 server (Buster) & Ubuntu 18.04 Linux system. Samba is an open-source implementation of the Server Message Block (SMB) and Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocols that provides file and print services between clients across various operating systems.
By configuring Samba server share on Debian 10 (Buster) / Ubuntu 18.04, you can easily share folders or files between Windows and Linux operating systems. In this context, the Windows machine will be used as a client to access Samba share on Linux (Debian 10/Ubuntu 18.04).
Step 1: Install Samba Server on Debian 10 / Ubuntu 18.04
To install Samba on Debian 10 Buster / Ubuntu 18.04, use the commands:
sudo apt -y update sudo apt -y install samba
If you’re using static IP address, answer no when asked to use WINS settings from DHCP.
Once the package is installed, proceed to step 2 where we will do the configuration and manage Samba service.
Step 2: Configure Samba Share on Debian 10 Buster / Ubuntu 18.04
Samba uses configuration file in /etc/samba/smb.conf. If you change this configuration file, the changes do not take effect until you restart the Samba daemon.
Let’s start by creating a directory to share via Samba. The directory must exist before it can be configured in smb.conf. We will create one under /home.
sudo mkdir -p /home/share
Access to All without Authentication (Not recommended)
The directory should be readable and writable for all users.
sudo chmod 777 /home/share
Configure Samba share on /etc/samba/smb.conf file.
$ sudo vim /etc/samba/smb.conf [global] # Configure correct UTP unix charset = UTF-8 # Change this to the workgroup/NT-domain name your Samba server will be part of workgroup = WORKGROUP interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0 bind interfaces only = yes # Set share configuration at the end [Docs] path = /home/share writable = yes guest ok = yes guest only = yes create mode = 0777 directory mode = 0777
- Docs – Samba share name
- path = /home/share – Directory to share
- guest ok = yes – Turn on guest share
- guest only = yes – All protected as guests
- writable = yes – Set share directory as writable
- create mode = 0777 & directory mode = 0777 – Allow access to all
Configure Secure Samba Share (Recommended)
Set group ownership of Samba share directory to sambashare group.
sudo chgrp sambashare /home/share
Create samba share users. Replace user1 with samba share user to create.
sudo useradd -M -d /home/share/user1 -s /usr/sbin/nologin -G sambashare user1 sudo mkdir /home/share/user1 sudo chown user1:sambashare /home/share/user1 sudo chmod 2770 /home/share/user1
Set the user password and confirm.
$ sudo smbpasswd -a user1 New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: Added user user1.
Enable samba account after setting the password using the command:
$ sudo smbpasswd -e user1 Enabled user user1.
We created a user’s home directory inside Samba share parent directory and set ownership to the samba share group. Let’s create another user.
sudo useradd -M -d /home/share/smbadmin -s /usr/sbin/nologin -G sambashare smbadmin sudo mkdir /home/share/smbadmin sudo smbpasswd -a smbadmin sudo smbpasswd -e smbadmin sudo chown smbadmin:sambashare /home/share/smbadmin sudo chmod 2770 /home/share/smbadmin
Configure Secure Samba share.
[user1] path = /home/share/user1 read only = no browseable = no force create mode = 0660 force directory mode = 2770 valid users = @user1 @sambashare [smbadmin] path = /home/share/smbadmin read only = no browseable = yes force create mode = 0660 force directory mode = 2770 valid users = @sambashare @smbadmin
Restart samba daemon after making the changes.
sudo systemctl restart smbd nmbd
Confirm that the service is running.
If you have an active firewall, run:
sudo ufw allow 'Samba'
Step 3: Configure Samba Clients
To access a Samba share on the Linux system, you need to install and configure Samba client.
---------- Install Samba client on Ubuntu / Debian ---- $ sudo apt -y install smbclient cifs-utils ---------- Install Samba client on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ---- $ sudo yum -y install samba-client cifs-utils $ sudo dnf -y install samba-client cifs-utils
Accessing Samba share – Temporarily
$ smbclient //sambaserver/share -U sambausername Example: $ smbclient //192.168.122.52/user1 -U user1 WARNING: The "syslog" option is deprecated Enter WORKGROUP\user1's password: Try "help" to get a list of possible commands. smb: \> list 0: server=192.168.122.52, share=user1 smb: > ls . D 0 Sun Jul 14 01:10:39 2019 .. D 0 Sun Jul 14 00:49:13 2019 latest.zip N 12121295 Tue Jun 18 10:52:03 2019
9544896 blocks of size 1024. 7918732 blocks availablesmb: > pwd Current directory is \192.168.122.52\user1\
You can mount a samba share to a directory in your local Linux system using the mount and cifs type option.
$ mkdir -p ~/mounts/shares $ mount -t cifs -o username=user1 //192.168.122.52/user1 ~/mounts/shares $ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/vda1 40G 2.9G 38G 8% / devtmpfs 488M 0 488M 0% /dev tmpfs 496M 0 496M 0% /dev/shm tmpfs 496M 6.7M 489M 2% /run tmpfs 496M 0 496M 0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs 100M 0 100M 0% /run/user/1000 //192.168.122.52/user1 9.2G 1.6G 7.6G 18% /home/computingforgeeks/mounts/shares
Mount Samba share using fstab.
You can use fstab file to persist Samba shares mounting through system reboots. In my example, I have the following line added to the end of /ect/fstab file.
//192.168.122.52/user1 /mnt/shares cifs credentials=/.sambacreds 0 0
Then I created a credentials file.
$ cat /.sambacreds username=user1 password=password domain=WORKGROUP
$ sudo mkdir -p /mnt/shares $ sudo mount -a $ df -hT | grep cifs //192.168.122.52/user1 cifs 9.2G 1.6G 7.6G 18% /mnt/shares
For Windows Desktop machines, follow the standard process of mounting a Samba share on Windows.